means a white or colourless mineral of the feldspar group.
means the chemical and mineralogical changes in rocks caused by addition or removal of materials through the medium of hydrothermal fluids, e.g. silicification.
means a fold that is convex upward, or had such an attitude at some at some stage of development.
means a broad, regional structural belt consisting of a major anticline containing small anticlines and synclines.
means a corrosive, fuming, volatile mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, used for testing metals and dissolving platinum and gold. Also called nitrohydrochloric acid.
means a rock that is less indurated than shale and more indurated than mudstone, claystone.
means a tin-white mineral (FeAsS) -- arsenic sulphide.
means an analysis to determine the presence, absence or quantity of one or more chemical components.
Atomic Absorption (AA)
means a common analytical method for trace or ultratrace (ppm or ppb level) determination of elements, particularly metals.
means dark-colored fine-grained extrusive igneous rock composed largely of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Similar in composition to gabbro. Basalt is thought to be one of the main components of oceanic crust
means a large, discordant irregular mass of coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock, usually granite, with an exposed surface of more than 100 square kilometres which has intruded the country rock.
means quartz-sericite-albite-pyrite alteration of intrusive rocks; usually associated with quartz veining and gold mineralization.
means a white, crystalline, brittle, highly diamagnetic metallic element used in alloys to form sharp castings for objects sensitive to high temperatures and in various low-melting alloys for fire-safety devices.
means a golden-yellow mineral, found in veins associated with igneous rocks, which is the main ore of copper.
means a sample taken across the face of foundation or a vein to provide an average value.
means the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum.
means a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments.
means the final period of the Mesozoic era.
means a method of obtaining a cylindrical core of rock by drilling with a diamond impregnated bit.
means a plutonic rock, intermediate in composition.
means the angle that a structural surface such as a bedding plane or fault surface deviates from the horizontal, measured perpendicular to the strike and in the vertical plane.
means an exploration technique whereby cores of rock are acquired for documentation and analysis.
means a tabular, near vertical, sheet of intrusive rock that cuts across horizontal to gently dipping planar structures in the surrounding rock.
means a geophysical measure of the electrical properties of the rocks.
means an exploration technique whereby the electrical and physical properties of the rocks are measured.
means any group of hard crystalline minerals that consist of aluminum silicates of potassium or sodium or calcium or barium.
means containing a group of light-coloured silicate minerals that occur in igneous rocks.
means an assay technique for precious metals where the sample is fused in a furnace to release the metal.
means a planar feature, such as a bedding plane, that has been strongly warped presumably by deformation from compressive forces.
means the line that maps the apex of an anticline or the trough of a syncline.
means a black, coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock, composed of calcium-rich feldspars, pyroxene and sometimes olivine.
means a gray metallic mineral (PbS), lead sulphide.
means a fine-grained intrusive silicic porphyritic granite or quartz porphyry with an intergrowth texture of alkali feldspar and quartz.
means a granular rock which has a composition part way between a granite and a diorite.
means a metamorphic facies which includes the product of low-grade regional metamorphism.
means grams per tonne.
means the upper wall of inclined vein, or that which hangs over the miner's head when working in the vein.
means a fine-grained metamorphic rock composed of quartz, feldspar, mica and other minerals, formed by the action of intrusive rock upon sedimentary rock, especially shale.
means a hot fluid, largely water, presumed to have been released from a magma.
means rock formed by the crystallization of magma or lava.
means that part of a mineral resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics, can be estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters, to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed the reliable exploration and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, working and drill holes that are spaced closely enough for geological and grade continuity to be reasonably assumed.
means a geophysical exploration method based on the phenomenon that metallic minerals can store an electric charge that is gradually released when the energizing current is removed.
means that part of a mineral resource for which quantity and grade or quality can be estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and reasonably assumed, but not verified geological and grade continuity. The estimate is based on limited information and sampling gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes.
means pertaining to igneous rocks or features formed by the emplacement of magma in pre-existing rock; igneous rocks that crystallize below Earth's surface.
Isoclinal / Isocline
means a fold which has parallel limbs.
is the Joint Ore Reserve Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and
means the second period of the Mesozoic era.
means the study and description of rocks, including their mineral composition and texture. Also used in reference to the compositional and textural characteristics of a rock.
means an unusually large vein or set of veins containing ore minerals.
means generally a dark-coloured igneous rock with significant amounts of one or more ferromagnesian minerals (more than 50 percent), such as amphibole, pyroxene and olivine (e.g. basalt, gabbro).
means the process of melting of rocks deep in the Earth.
means the science and technology of extraction of metals from their ores and the refining of metals.
means a sedimentary rock that shows evidence of having been subjected to metamorphism.
Metasomatism / Metasomatic
means the process by which the chemical composition of a rock is changed by interaction with fluids; replacement of one mineral by another without melting.
means the presence of metallic minerals in rocks.
means pure gold, as opposed to comprising part of a gold bearing mineral. It is usually free milling (i.e. can be recovered by gravity techniques).
means an interval of geologic time of the Tertiary period, late Tertiary.
means surficial mining, in which the valuable rock is exposed by removal of overlying rock or soil.
means a natural aggregate of one or more minerals which, at a specified time and place, may be mined and sold at a profit or from which some part may be profitably separated.
Orogeny / Orogenic
means the process of mountain formation, especially by a folding and faulting of the Earth's crust.
means of or belonging to the geologic time, system of rocks, or sedimentary deposits of the seventh and last period of the Paleozoic Era, characterized by the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea, the rise of conifers and the diversification of reptiles and ending with the largest known mass extinction in the history of life.
means a location where gold is obtained from washing, usually an alluvial or glacial deposit that contains particles of gold or other valuable minerals.
means an epoch of the Quaternary period.
means texture of igneous rock that contains large crystals in fine-grained ground mass.
means a mineralized showing on which exploration work has been performed.
means a yellow mineral (FeS2), iron sulphide.
means a brownish-bronze iron sulfide mineral (FeS) characterized by weak magnetic properties and used as an iron ore and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid.
means one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust; has a chemical composition of SiO2 and a hardness of seven. Occurs in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks.
means a granitic rock in which quartz comprises 10-50% of the felsic constituents.
means an exploration technique whereby the natural radioactivity of the underlying rocks is measured.
means the fine-grained equivalent of granite.
means a detrital clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-size grains from 1/16 to 2 millimeters in diameter, dominated in most sandstones by quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments, bound together by a cement of silica, carbonate, or other minerals or a matrix of clay minerals.
means any of various medium-grained to coarse-grained metamorphic rocks composed of laminated, often flaky parallel layers of chiefly micaceous minerals.
means rock formed from the accumulation and consolidation of sediment, usually in layered deposits.
means white, fine-grained potassium mica.
means a sedimentary rock consisting wholly of clay particles.
means planar zone of weakness, similar to a fault, but consisting of several parallel displacement zones, usually over a greater width than a single fault.
means a set of parallel veins or veinlets.
means a mineralized area of small to intermediate size, situated within the boundaries of a Prospect.
means silica dioxide (SiO2) crystalline quartz.
means a tabular sheet of igneous rock intrusion that parallels the bedding planes of the surrounding sedimentary rock.
means a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed mostly of silt-size particles.
means an exploration technique whereby samples of soil are analyzed for metal content.
means a yellow, brown or black mineral [(Zn,Fe)S], zinc sulphide.
means a small, roughly circular intrusion of igneous rock (batholith), usually less than 100 square kilometres.
means a mineral deposited as a network of tiny veins spread throughout the country rock.
means an ore deposit which occurs within a specific stratigraphic bed or horizon, but which does not comprise the entire bed.
means the study of sedimentary rock units, including their geographic extent, age, classification, characteristics and formation.
means an exploration technique whereby samples of stream sediments are analyzed for metal content.
means the angle/compass direction between true North and the horizontal line contained in any planar feature (i.e. an inclined bed, dyke, fault surface, bedding plane); also the geographic direction of this horizontal line. Strike is perpendicular to dip direction.
means the geological features consisting of faults, folds and shears.
means a fold that is convex downward, where the youngest strata area in the centre or that had such an attitude at some stage in its development.
means a broad, regional structural belt consisting of a major syncline containing small anticlines and synclines.
means a fold whose limbs close downward, in a convex manner, in strata for which the stratigraphic sequence is unknown.
means a geologic process or event occurring during a period of orogenic activity, or a rock or feature so formed.
means regional structural events related to mountain building.
means derived from the land, especially by erosive action. Used primarily of sediments.
means a metric ton consisting of 1,000 kilograms.
means an exploration technique whereby trenches are dug to expose potential ore for geological examination.
means the first period of the Mesozoic era.
means small veins.
means a rock formed by volcanic activity.
means volcanic ash beds.
Wet Chemical Analysis
means an assay technique whereby aqua regia digestion of a 30 gram sample of pulp is taken into solution and analyzed by atomic absorption.